Researcher Profiles

Comprehensive Database of all UZ leading Research and Innovation endeavors

Dr. Fiona Makoni


MuDr. Stom (University of J P Safarik), Republic of Slovakia ,MPH (Emory University), USA ,PGD Research Ethics (University of Cape Town), RSA

Academic Appointments:

Senior Lecturer and Chairperson Department

Research Interests:

Oral health, oral epidemiology

Faculty: College of Health Science
Department: Department of Dentistry
Research Category: Dentistry

Phone: +263 772 263 633

Intergrating Dentistry Lectures into Medical Students' Teaching: A Case Study
Conference Paper
• Oct 2013
• 10th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry 2013

bjectives: * To determine the effectiveness of the dentistry block course in imparting knowledge to final year medical students * To assess the final year medical students’ level of understanding of the lectures given during their dentistry block course Methods: Sampling method: The sampling frame was final year medical students at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences. Convenience sampling was used, where all the final year medical students who had attended the dentistry block course were included. Data collection method: The final year medical students were divided into six groups of 23 and assigned one week per month each to attend a dentistry block course. The first two groups to attend the dentistry block course are the participants in this study. The students attended lectures in 5 disciplines of dentistry (oral surgery, community dentistry, restorative dentistry, periodontics, and prosthodontics)as well as observation of clinical dentistry. An attendance register was taken for each lecture and clinical rotation. All students included in this study attended the block course. At the end of the block week, a standard short answer assessment test was administered as part of their continuous assessment requirements. The test was divided into 5 sections of twenty marks each and written over two hours. The results were recorded and captured using the STATA statistical package and are presented below. Results: The lowest scores were in prosthodontics with a mean score of 9.45 (5.68,13.22). Periodontics had the highest scores with a mean score of 15.37(12.2,18.54). Above average scores were obtained in oral surgery, mean score 11.03 (8.48,13.58), community dentistry, mean score 13.03 (7.67,18.4), and restorative dentistry mean score 13.2 (9.51,16.88). Conclusions: Overall the block course successfully imparted knowledge of dentistry to the students. Technical courses like prosthodontics lacked the necessary laboratory complement and were hence more difficult to grasp.
• 4 Reads
The role of dental practitioners in Provider Initiated HIV Counseling and Testing (PITC) for patients attending dental practices in Harare, Zimbabwe

To assess the role of Zimbabwean dental practitioners in Provider Initiated HIV Counseling and Testing (PITC). A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from participants. Harare private and public dental practices. Forty dental practitioners practicing in Harare and two hundred and ninety three patients attending dental practices in Harare were interviewed. Dental practitioners' practices on HIV counseling and testing for dental patients, acceptability of HIV testing in dental settings and missed opportunities for HIV counseling and testing in dental settings were assessed. Half of the dental practitioners (20) interviewed reported offering HIV counseling to dental patients during their clinical duties. The majority 62% only referred their patients for HIV testing when they presented with oral manifestations of HIV infection. Seventy three percent (29) of practitioners interviewed were not aware of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare guidelines on HIV counseling and testing. Eighty seven percent (255) of dental patients in this study reported not being counseled nor referred for HIV counseling and testing by their dental practitioner during their dental visits. More than a third (36.5%) of the dental patients experienced repeated missed opportunities for accessing HIV counseling and testing in health settings. The minimal that the dentists may need to be involved with in PITC is counseling their patients and improve referral for care. There is need for continued medical education for dentists on issues related to new HIV interventions or protocols such as PITC.
• 14 Reads
Infection control among dental therapists in Zimbabwe
• Jul 2006
To assess the general infection control practices with special reference to the prevention of transmission of HIV/AIDS infection among dental therapists in Zimbabwe. Dental therapists practising in Zimbabwe Government Oral Health Clinics. A descriptive cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Questions dealt with infection control practices in the procedure rooms, including barriers to transmission of infection, the practice of disinfection of working surfaces, the use of autoclave, and sterilization of the handpiece. The questionnaire also covered issues of personal protection through the use of protective wear, vaccination against hepatitis B as well as knowledge of one's HIV status. There was a 68% (24/35) response rate. The therapists were predominantly male and they were evenly distributed in the provinces of Zimbabwe. All were trained in Zimbabwe; 91.7% had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B and only 20% (n = 7) had undergone previous HIV testing. Use of gloves was universal; 92% used face masks; 66.7% used protective eyewear; 87.5% wore protective garments; 95% autoclaved/chemoclaved high speed handpieces; 83.3% autoclaved/chemoclaved slow speed handpieces. Barriers to infection control ranged from 22.7% to 40.9% and was attributed to non-availability of gloves and disinfectants. The dental therapists seem to practise acceptable infection control methods. There is need to improve upon handpiece sterilization, the use of eyewear and improvement upon supplies for disinfection. Vaccination against hepatitis B virus needs to be encouraged.
• 29 Reads
Effectiveness of an oral health education programme in primary schools in Zimbabwe after 3.5 years
• Aug 2001

• [.
Many medical and dental professionals in African nations believe that school teachers, through attendance of a short workshop, can be trained to provide oral health education. This increases the number of professionals available and is regarded as an important way forward in improving oral health. The current study assesses the effectiveness of an oral health education programme administered by schoolteachers in a district in Zimbabwe over a period of 3.5 years. The experimental group consisted of schools that had sent representatives to a regional workshop on oral health held in 1992. The control group was selected at random from schools not having attended the workshop. A total number of 439 boys and 526 girls were examined in 1992. Follow-up evaluations were carried out in 1993, 1994 and 1996. The dependent variables were plaque accumulation and caries increment in grade 2 and grade 4 children of experimental and control schools. ANOVA test with year of evaluation (1992-94), experiment/control school, age and gender as independent variables showed no statistically significant difference in mean plaque scores in longitudinally examined original grade 2 (P>0.20) and grade 4 children (P=0.06) from experimental and control schools. The mean caries increment score in the experimental and control schools was 0.04 and 0.19, respectively. ANOVA test with fluoride levels and gender as independent variables on caries increment in experimental and control schools did not show a statistically significant difference (P=0.06). The one-time training of teachers in aspects of oral health was ineffective in lowering plaque levels over a period of 3.5 years. Considering the low caries increment observed over the study period, the effect of the oral health programme on caries levels in the study group was inconclusive.
• 91 Reads
ART restorations and glass ionomer sealants in Zimbabwe: Survival after 3 years
• Jan 1999


Fiona Makoni
Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) consists of removing demineralised tooth tissues with hand instruments only, restoring the prepared cavity and sealing the adjacent pits and fissures with an adhesive filling material. This relatively painless, no-handpiece, minimal intervention approach to controlling dental caries is described. ART was applied in an oral health care programme in Zimbabwe that was carried out amongst secondary school students from 1994 to 1997. A new glass ionomer (Fuji IX) was used as the restorative and sealant material. Sealants were placed in high caries risk students using the 'press-finger' technique. A total of 297 one-surface ART restorations and 95 glass ionomer sealants were placed in 142 and 66 students, respectively. After 3 years, the lost-to-follow-up percentages for one-surface ART restorations and glass ionomer sealants were 30.6% and 30.5%, respectively. Actuarial (life table) analysis resulted in 3-year survival rates of one-surface ART restorations of 88.3% (95% CI: 92.4%-84.2%), ranging from 94.3% to 65.4% per operator. A total of 28 ART restorations placed in 25 students failed. Reasons for failure related to the material and the operator (11 restorations or 5.3% each), and to caries adjacent to the restoration (one restoration or 0.5%). Reasons for failure were not recorded for five restorations (2.3%). Sealants were placed on surfaces diagnosed as early enamel lesions. After 3 years, 71.4% (95% CI: 81.7%-61.1%) of the fully and partially retained sealants survived with a range of 100% to 55.6% per operator. Of the sealed surfaces 96.3% (95% CI: 100%-92.2%) survived 3 years without developing caries. Experienced operators placed better ART restorations than inexperienced operators. This study has demonstrated that ART with a glass ionomer restorative material and sealants provided high quality preventive and restorative dental care to this student population. ART has become one of the treatment modalities available to oral health workers in managing dental caries.
• 57 Reads
Three-Year Survival of One-Surface ART Resto

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